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Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

06.03.2016 | Автор:
Александр

     Кларкия — это красивоцветущий однолетник, который выращивают из семян. Он все чаще, наравне с васильками, становится украшением клумб, рабаток на дачах и садовых участках. Это растение с одревесневающими стеблями отлично сочетается с флоксами (другими низкорослыми цветами), астрами, нивяником. Кларкия, выращенная из семян, может выступать и эффектным солитером, поскольку её простые и махровые формы отлично смотрятся на фоне любого ландшафта.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

Посадка кларкии и уход за цветами

     На сегодняшний день культивируют несколько видов данного цветка из 40 существующих. Это — кларкия приятная, ноготковая (изящная), хорошенькая, Бревери. Все они отличаются обильным и длительным цветением.

Подготовка почвы и посев семян в открытый грунт

     Этот цветок предпочитает открытые (посадку производим подальше от ограждения дачи) участки. Для него очень важно полноценное освещение. Несмотря на свою светолюбивость, он отлично переносит низкие осенние температуры, что позволяет любоваться прекрасными кустиками очень долго. Помимо холодостойкости, данное растение отличается хорошей засухоустойчивостью.

     Выращивание кларкии из семян начинаем с подготовки почвы. Она предпочитает рыхлые и хорошо увлажненные грунты. При этом они не должны быть богатыми питательными веществами. Кларкия, в отличие от большинства других красивоцветущих растений, не переносит «жирную» и тяжелую почву, например, чернозём. Именно поэтому, для выращивания данного цветка практические любые виды грунта следует смешивать с песком. В противном случае очень часто отмечаются случаи полегания стеблей. Наиболее подходящими для выращивания данного растения считаются слабокислые почвы. Они обязательно должны быть рыхлыми и водопроницаемыми. Для выращивания рассады используем смесь песка (2 части) и торфа — 1.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

     Перед высевом семян обрабатываем их розовым раствором марганцовки. Для этого замачиваем посевной материал в этом веществе на 3 — 4 часа. Для предотвращения поражения всходов различными насекомыми — паразитами, подготовленный грунт для рассады прогреваем 10 — 15 минут в духовом шкафу или ошпариваем его кипятком.

     Кларкию чаще всего выращивают путем высева посевного материала прямо в открытый, достаточно прогретый, грунт. Наиболее всего для этого подходит конец апреля — середина мая (но тут всё оценивайте по текущему сезону). При этом из семян вырастают экземпляры с более развитыми и мощными стеблями, а также крупными цветками. Несмотря на это, у них часто отмечается неоднородная длина побегов, поэтому дачнику придется самостоятельно формировать однородные кустики. Спустя 2 недели после посева пробиваются первые всходы. При сильном их загущении удаляем слабые ростки, оставляя между оставшимися экземплярами до 18 -20 см. При посадке высокорослых сортов увеличиваем интервал между ними до 25 см. При сильно редких посадках кустиков отмечается не слишком обильное цветение.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

Посадка кларкии рассадой, подзимним посевом и самосевом

     В умеренных широтах некоторые цветоводы выращивают этот цветок с помощью подзимнего сева семян. В этом случае полностью созревший посевной материал высеваем на участок в середине осени. Посевы присыпаем почвой и утепляем листьями или опилками. Кларкия легко размножается самосевом, поэтому в начале весны на месте её выращивания можно часто увидеть молодые всходы. В этом случае для формирования полноценных кустиков в новом сезоне необходимо будет только провести прореживание самосева.

     Особо ценные сорта выращиваем путем высева семян в отдельные горшочки или небольшие контейнеры. При этом посевной материал высыпаем на поверхность заранее приготовленной почвы. Не стоит присыпать их землей. Необходимо слегка вдавить их в почву пальцем или маленькой лопаткой. Посевы тщательно опрыскиваем из пульверизатора мягкой водой комнатной температуры и их накрываем крышкой. Горшочки с посевами выставляем на подоконник. При этом они должны получать достаточно освещения. Для нежных всходов кларкии недопустимо попадание прямых палящих лучей солнца.

     Периодически крышку открываем. Это необходимо для доступа свежего воздуха и света к посевам. Наиболее здоровыми вырастают сеянцы, получившие полноценное освещение продолжительностью 8 — 10 часов в день. Для увеличения длительности освещения используем ультрафиолетовую лампу.

     Полив должен быть своевременным, чтобы земляной ком был всегда увлажненным. Чаще всего для нормального развития растений требуется всего 1 — 2 полива в неделю. Крышку с посевов убираем окончательно после появления на всходах первых листочков. Затем пикируем сеянцы и оставляем их для доращивания в хорошо вентилируемых помещениях. Рассадный способ выращивания чаще всего используется для последующего формирования клумб и рабаток.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

     В конце мая сеянцы высаживаем на заранее подготовленные участки. Для обеспечения нормального роста цветкам необходимо тщательно перекопать и выровнять почву. Перед посадкой рассады землю хорошо увлажняем. Поскольку у данного растения довольно нежная корневая система, пересадку стараемся проводить максимально осторожно, сохраняя целым земляной ком из горшочков.

     Лучше всего для выращивания кларкии из семян рассадным способом использовать торфяные горшочки, которые можно высаживать прямо в открытый грунт, без повреждений корневой системы молодых растений. При этом способе выращивания данного цветка важно помнить о том, что он хорошо переносит пересадку в самом начале роста. Если пересадка будет произведена с опозданием, то сеянцы в открытом грунте никогда не смогут вырасти полноценными и обильно цветущими.

     Подросшие сеянцы высаживаем на постоянное место небольшими группами. При этом не допускаем загущения посадок, поскольку из-за этого они хуже цветут. При выращивании нескольких сортов между ними оставляем большие интервалы, чтобы не допустить смешивания сортов и перекрестного опыления растений. После высаживания сеянцев на клумбы вокруг них втыкаем палочки, которые должны обеспечить поддержку тонких и неокрепших стеблей растения. Со временем подпорки убираем.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

Уход за цветами

     Выращивание кларкии из семян способен осилить даже неопытный дачник, поскольку она практически не требует никакого специального ухода. Поливаем её регулярно, но без избытка, — она не выносит застоя воды. Поливы проводим только по мере подсыхания почвы и в засушливые дни.

     Данное растение предпочитает минеральные подкормки, поэтому органику под него не вносят. Подкармливать минералкой лучше пару раз в месяц. Кларкия особенно нуждается в этом в засушливую погоду.

     При правильном выращивании этого растения уже в июле можно любоваться прекрасными цветками. Для сохранения декоративности куста регулярно удаляем отцветшие бутоны и отмирающие листочки. Примерно спустя месяц после опадения лепестков бутонов на их месте образуются плоды — коробочки, содержащие мелкие семена. Об их полном созревании свидетельствует бурый цвет семенных коробочек. Для выращивания кларкии пригодны семена, возраст которых не превышает 4 лет.

     Для получения более густых кустиков необходимо периодически прищипывать верхушки соцветий. Делаем это, когда побеги достигнут высоты в 20 — 25 см. Высокорослые сорта поддерживаем деревянными колышками, поскольку их длинные стебли могут обламываться при сильном ветре и под своей тяжестью. Перед наступлением заморозков стебли растения обрезаем практически вровень с землей.

Кларкия, выращивание из семян — тонкости посадки и ухода

Болезни и вредители кларкии

     Иногда на цветках и листочках кларкии появляются серые пятнышки с темной окантовкой. Они являются признаком грибкового заболевания растения. Для его устранения все кусты в цветниках опрыскиваем фунгицидами. Обработку производим пару раз в неделю. Чаще всего появление грибка свидетельствует о переувлажнении корневой системы.

     Одним из самых опасных для кларкии вредителей является блошка. Иногда это насекомое уничтожает будущее растение ещё на стадии всходов. В некоторых случаях, даже запоздалая химическая обработка посевов может привести к полной их потере. Чтобы это не произошло, участки с посевами семян лучше всего тщательно накрыть неткаными материалами, например, геотекстилем. Таким образом, можно не только предотвратить нападение блошек на сеянцы, но и обеспечить влажность посевов.

     Кларкию выращивают, также, в горшках и контейнерах. Крупные сорта, у которых побеги могут достигать 50 — 80 см, идут и на срезку. Этот цветок не теряет своей декоративности до 7 дней, особенно, если со стеблей удалить нижние листочки.

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