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Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

04.03.2016 | Автор:
Александр

Выращивание, размножение и уход за многолетними васильками

     Все чаще на дачных участках, наряду с перистой гвоздикой, можно встретить замечательные многолетние цветы — васильки. Их прелесть заключается в том, что любителям всем известного красивого, яркого и изящного растения не надо ежегодно высевать семена, как это бывает с выращиванием одноименного однолетника. Благодаря селекционерам получено множество самых разнообразных сортов, различающихся формой цветков и их окраской. Василек многолетний — замечательный вариант не только в плане декорирования ландшафта дачи. Он настоящий защитник почвы от эрозии, При этом он — превосходный медонос, цветущий с июня до поздней осени.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

     По своей неприхотливости (в отличие от гербер) эти васильки могут дать фору многим других красивоцветущим растениям. На дачных участках чаще всего выращивают следующие их многолетние виды: горный, подбеленный, крупноголовый, шероховатый, раскидистый. В продаже встречаются сорта, высота которых колеблется от 25 см и достигающие метра. Данный цветок — это настоящее украшение клумб и отличный вариант для срезки.

Посадка васильков

     Выращивание и уход за данным цветком мало чем отличается от васильков однолетних. Это растение характеризуется холодостойкостью и светолюбивостью. Цветок неплохо чувствует себя и на немного затененных участках. Для него наиболее всего подходят среднеувлажненные, некислые и рыхлые почвы. При этом они должны достаточно плодородными и водопроницаемыми. Тяжелые почвы перед посадкой улучшаем речным песком. Не повредит почве и небольшое количество компоста.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

     Василек многолетний выращивают путем высева семян на постоянное место весной либо под зиму. Небольшие отличия в сроках посадки отмечаются только у небольшого числа сортов. Наиболее подходящее время высевания семян в конце апреля (как прогреется земля). Семена высеваем на подготовленные (перекопанные и выровненные) участки и присыпаем тонким слоем почвы. Посевы аккуратно поливаем из лейки. Всходы появляются через неделю. При подзимней посадке посевной материал высеваем в октябре — ноябре. Осенние посевы прекрасно обходятся без дополнительного укрытия на зиму.

     Васильки редко выращивают рассадным способом. Для получения крепких сеянцев посевной материал высеваем в середине — конце марта. При выращивании сеянцев лучше использовать торфяные горшочки, наполненные питательным субстратом, предназначенным для выращивания рассады. Регулярный полив и освещение обеспечат дальнейший нормальный уход за сеянцами. Высаживаем рассаду на постоянное место прямо в торфяных горшочках, при миновании угрозы заморозков весной. Эту процедуру обычно выполняют в конце апреля. Перед посадкой рассаду хорошо поливаем.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

     Для получения густых кустиков расстояние между отдельными экземплярами многолетника должно составлять 20 — 55 см. Этот интервал зависит от сорта. При этом помним, что более высокорослый сорт потребует и большего расстояния между его кустиками. При сильном загущении растения вытягиваются, теряют свою декоративность и менее обильно цветут. До распускания первых бутонов проходит всего 55 — 65 дней после появления всходов.

Как ухаживать за васильками

     Уход за этим растением совершенно несложный — это не будет проблемой для любого дачника. Основные требования при выращивании этого цветка предъявляются к поливу растений. Поливаем их умеренно, то есть, по мере высыхания земляного кома Недопустимо переувлажнение почвы, которое может привести к замоканию корневой системы и гибели цветка.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

     Для гарантированного пышного цветения и активного прироста зелёной массы кустов, васильки подкармливаем комплексными минеральными удобрениями. Вносим их 1 раз в пару — тройку недель. Для обеспечения хорошей зимовки многолетних кустов осуществляем их предзимнюю подкормку. Такая процедура повышает зимостойкость растения и гарантирует активный рост и обильное цветение в будущем сезоне.

     В качестве профилактики от болезней на протяжении всего периода вегетации листья и побеги периодически посыпаем перетертой в пыль древесной золой. При уходе за данным цветком требуется регулярная прополка посадок. При выращивании высокорослых сортов может потребоваться подвязывание кустов к опорам. Особенно нуждаются в этом экземпляры, высаженные на ветреных участках.

     По окончанию цветения собираем вызревшие семена растения (3-х летняя всхожесть у них гарантирована). Если цветовод — дачник не планирует собирать семена, для сохранения декоративности кустов увядшие бутоны следует регулярно удалять. Василек многолетний хорошо переносит пересадку. Лучше всего их пересаживать в августе, хотя и весенний период он хорошо приживается на новом месте.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

Размножение васильков

     Многолетние васильки размножаются не только путем высева семян. Получить мощные растения можно очень быстро при помощи деления взрослых кустов. Эту процедуру осуществляем в конце лета или ранней весной. Взрослый куст осторожно извлекаем из земли. Наземные побеги укорачиваем до 10 см от основания корня. Корневую систему промываем, а затем разрезаем её на части хорошо заточенным ножом. У деленок обязательно должны быть дочерние здоровые почки. Перед их высаживанием на клумбы в почву вносим готовую компостную землю.

     Васильки многолетние прекрасно размножаются и самосевом. В этом случае весной молодые растения аккуратно извлекаем из земли, сохраняя при этом земляной ком и, пересаживаем их на постоянное место.

Многолетние цветы васильки — редкий гость в саду

Болезни и вредители васильков

     Василек многолетний устойчив к различным видам заболеваний. В редких случаях у него бывает фузариоз. Признаками этого грибкового заболевания является пожелтение и опадание листьев, общее увядание и потемневшие корни. Для устранения болезни кусты обрабатываем Фундазолом или Беномилом.

     При жаре и сухой погоде цветок может поражаться паутинным клещиком. Признаком появления вредителя являются маленькие серебристые пятнышки на листьях. Местом скопления клещиков является нижняя часть листовой пластинки. Борьбу с вредителями осуществляем срезкой и сжиганием пораженных частей. Кустики опрыскиваем раствором хозяйственного мыла или Интавира — на выбор. В сухую погоду необходимо 1 — 2 раза в день опрыскивать растения водой.

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