Фейхоа (Акка)
Семейство Миртовые.
Род Фейхоа включает в себя всего три вида, из которых в культуре распространен только один — фейхоа Селлова. Впервые была обнаружена в середине позапрошлого столетия в субтропиках Южной Америки, после чего быстро вошла в культуру. В дикорастущем виде встречается в Южной Бразилии, Северной Аргентине, Парагвае и Уругвае. В культуре, помимо американских стран, широко распространена в странах Средиземноморья, а на территории бывшего СССР культивируется в Крыму, Краснодарском крае, а также в Азербайджане и Грузии, преимущественно на любительских приусадебных участках. Кроме того, фейхоа (чаще под названием акка) нередко культивируют как комнатное растение.

Биологические особенности
Фейхоа — вечнозеленое дерево до 6 м высотой (чаще 2-3 м), которое нередко выглядит как кустарник, из-за того что боковые ветви у него направлены в разные стороны, а внизу образуется обильная корневая поросль. Растет быстро. Кора ветвей серовато-желтая. Листья у него до б см длиной и до 4 см шириной, овальные, плотные, кожистые, сверху зеленые, снизу серебристо-белые от опушения, обладают характерным запахом, расположены супротивно.

Соцветия пазушные, малоцветковые (могут выглядеть и как одиночные цветки), расположены на длинных цветоножках; цветки (рис. 9) крупные (3—4 см в диаметре), четырехлепестковые, лепестки снаружи белые или розоватые, а внутри малиново-красные. Плод фейхоа — овальная или продолговатая ягода 5—10 см длиной и массой от 20 до 130 г, чаще всего зеленая с красноватым оттенком (но может быть желтой, красной, оранжевой, реже — фиолетовой или почти черной), покрытая восковым налетом. Мякоть может быть бело-кремовой или светло-зеленой, она плотная, сочная, кисло-сладкая с приятным ароматом.

Кожица на вкус более терпкая, но легко отделяется от мякоти. Внутри нее расположены гнезда с многочисленными семенами, настолько мелкими, что при еде они не ощущаются. На одном экземпляре может образоваться до 30 кг плодов.

Фейхоа является одним из самых зимостойких субтропических растений, дерево не повреждаясь переносит температуры до -15 °С и относительно легко восстанавливается в случае вымерзания ветвей. Фейхоа светолюбива, но может переносить в открытом грунте небольшое затенение, как укрывную культуру ее выращивают севернее субтропической зоны (при этом в тропиках успешно вырастить ее не удается). К почвам нетребовательна, может расти на очень бедных, песчаных и каменистых грунтах, однако на богатых и плодородных почвах развивается лучше и дает хороший урожай.

Ценность культуры
Фейхоа ценится за вкус плодов, напоминающий сразу ананас, банан и землянику, и за их лечебно-диетические свойства. Их употребляют в пищу преимущественно в свежем виде, обычно подсахаривая, но из них можно готовить варенье, повидло, желе, мармелад, также их используют для приготовления прохладительных напитков, ликеров и настоек, в которых хорошо сохраняются специфические вкус и аромат.

Плоды фейхоа содержат сахара (5—14 %), кислоты (2—3,5 %), витамины С (около 50 мг на 100 г) и Р, пектиновые вещества, клетчатку, катехины и лейкоантоцианы, растворимый танин, эфирные масла, фенольные соединения и минеральные вещества, в том числе рекордно большое количество водорастворимых легкоусваиваемых соединений йода (до 3 мг на 100 г плодов), что считается их уникальной особенностью — суточную потребность организма в йоде можно удовлетворить 1—2 плодами.

В лечебно-диетическом питании плоды фейхоа рекомендуют при заболевании щитовидной железы, атеросклерозе, гипо- и авитаминозе С, воспалительных заболеваниях желудочно-кишечного тракта, гастрите и пиелонефрите. Также фейхоа нередко рекомендуют при болезнях печени и поджелудочной железы, а выделенное из плодов эфирное масло фейхоа используют как противовоспалительное средство.

При этом благодаря красивым цветкам и серебри-стой окраске листьев кусты фейхоа выглядят весьма декоративно.

Сорта
Из отечественных сортов фейхоа наиболее распространены сорта крымской селекции Ароматная, Крымская, Никитская 3, Никитская 42, Ялтинская и др.

Из зарубежных сортов чаще всего встречаются Андре, Кулидж, Сюпербаи Чойсеаш.

Выбор места
К почвам фейхоа нетребовательна (не выносит только излишне известковые), но лучше всего растет на плодородных супесчаных и суглинистых с низким залеганием грунтовых вод. На участке надо по возможности выделять под фейхоа наиболее освещенные места.

Размножение
Фейхоа можно размножать черенками, отводками и семенами. При размножении черенками и отводками растения плодоносят на 3—4-й, а при семенном размножении — на 5—6-й год.

Семенной способ размножения — самый простой, поэтому он применяется чаще других, несмотря на то что полученные таким образом растения практически не сохраняют сортовых признаков родителей. Выращивают сеянцы обычно рассадным методом. Семена сохраняют годность в течение 2 лет и в специальной обработке не нуждаются, но у свежесобранных всхожесть выше. Для удобства перед посевом их желательно перемешать с песком.

Время посева — с января по март (лучше февраль). Высевать их лучше в горшочки, которые, в свою очередь, можно поместить в микротеплички из полиэтилена, но можно и в рассадный ящик в бороздки на расстоянии 5—6 см друг от друга.

Семена у фейхоа мелкие, поэтому их не заделывают в почву, а просто присыпают сверху землей или кладут сверху слой фильтровальной бумаги. Сразу после посева горшочки надо полить (осторожно, чтобы не вымыть семена из почвы) и поместить в теплое место (оптимальна температура 18—25 °С).

Первые всходы обычно появляются через 3—4 недели (при ежедневном опрыскивании и хорошем освещении — несколько раньше). Сеянцы пикируют после образования 2—4 пар настоящих листьев с подрезкой части корневой системы; на следующий год их можно поместить на постоянное место.

При вегетативном размножении (черенки и отводки) все сортовые признаки сохраняются. На черенки используют части полуодревесневших побегов 10—12 см длиной с 2—3 листьями из верхней или средней части.

Лучше всего срезать их в ноябре—декабре (после окончания осеннего роста). Укореняются они только после обработки в течение 16—18 часов «Гетероауксином» или «Корневином» при высокой влажности воздуха, температуре в пределах 26—28 °С и дополнительной подсветке.

При размножении фейхоа отводками следует соблюдать осторожность: когда нижние ветви (а они очень хрупкие) пригибают к земле, их легко сломать, во всем остальном оно проводится стандартными способами.

Четкой схемы посадки нет, но между растениями должно оставаться расстояние не менее 2 м.

Обрезка, формирование кроны
Формирование кроны фейхоа не требуется, более того — не рекомендуется, поскольку плоды образуются на ветвях текущего года, их обрезка неминуемо снижает плодоношение. Единственное, что стоит делать в дан-ном случае, — это прищипывать молодые растения по достижении ими высоты 20 см, что позволит сдержать рост в высоту. В дальнейшем желательно удалять корневую поросль и периодически разреживать крону в случае загущения. Также желательно проводить сани-тарную обрезку.

Поливы
Для фейхоа оптимальна постоянная умеренная влажность, надо поливать ее так, чтобы не допускать ни пересушивания, ни переувлажнения почвы.

Подкормки
Как всякое растение, приспособившееся в природе к жизни на бедных почвах, фейхоа очень, отзывчива на вносимые удобрения.

Азотные и калийные удобрения вносят весной и в начале лета.

Прочий уход
Если растения цветут, но не плодоносят, необходимо дополнительное перекрестное опыление кисточкой. Для лучшего оплодотворения рекомендуется вечером опрыскивать цветки водой.

Прочий уход включает в себя прополку (по мере необходимости), рыхление приствольного круга (минимум раз в год глубоко и по мере образования твердой корки на почве — поверхностно) и защиту от болезней.

Уборка урожая
Плоды фейхоа обычно собирают недозрелыми, так как они отлично дозревают в лежке, а спелые слишком плохо хранятся (их надо использовать сразу). Степень спелости можно определить на ощупь: спелые они мягкие. Нередко плоды, еще будучи твердыми и незрелыми, опадают— их тоже можно собирать и класть на дозаривание в освещенном месте.

Вредители и болезни
Фейхоа редко повреждается болезнями и вредителями, но при длительном переувлажнении почвы вероятность заражения грибковыми болезнями сильно возрастает.
Фейхоа (Акка)

Источник: supersadovod.ru

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