Терн и Тернослива
Семейство Розоцветные.

Терн относится к тому же роду, что и слива домашняя с алычой, а его научное название звучит как «слива колючая» (реже — «слива тернина»). Среди представителей рода Терн выделяется редкой зимостойкостью и нетребовательностью к условиям произрастания, что обусловило его широкое распространение в дикорастущем виде по всему европейскому континенту, включая Скандинавию, Финляндию и страны Прибалтики.

С другой стороны, терн способен расти в горах на высотах, недоступных другим сливовым (1600 м над уровнем моря и выше). В Украине дикорастущего терновника особенно много в западных областях и в Карпатах.

Хотя терн известен человечеству с незапамятных времен, как собственно плодовую культуру его рассматривают редко (из-за плохого вкуса плодов и трудности их сбора) и выращивают или как техническую культуру, или в качестве подвоя для других косточковых с целью повышения их зимостойкости и неприхотливости в целом. Но не зря говорят, что нет правил без исключений.

В садах на Средней Волге уже не одно десятилетие растут интересные крупноплодные сорта терна (потомки перенесенных в сады удачных экземпляров дикоросов), у которых есть вполне реальные шансы заставить пересмотреть отношение к терну в качестве плодовой культуры (правда, есть вероятность, что они являются не собственно терном, а случайно возникшими терносливами). В еще большей степени интересны его гибриды со сливой — терносливы, объединившие в себе ряд достоинств обоих исходных видов.

Первые терносливы возникли естественным путем при совместном произрастании терновника и одичавших экземпляров сливы домашней. Результат этого случайного скрещивания привлек внимание селекционеров, после чего на многих опытных станциях начали появляться новые, уже специально выведенные гибридные сорта. Впрочем, сорта терносливы чаще всего фигурируют и в литературных источниках, и в продаже как сорта терна, даже И. В. Мичурин назвал «терном» два из трех выведенных им ее сортов — это Терн сладкий и Терн десертный.

Биологические особенности
Обычно терновник выглядит как невысокий кустарник, реже — как небольшое деревце с густо покрытыми колючками побегами. Он дает очень обильную корневую поросль, из-за чего в дикой природе легко образовывает непроходимые заросли. Цветет до распускания почек, позже, чем другие сливовые (включая специально выведенные поздноцветущие сорта).

Плодоносит в июле- августе, иногда почти целиком покрываясь мелкими (1—1,5 см в диаметре) шаровидными сине-черными терпкими на вкус плодами, покрытыми восковым налетом. Привычки терна необычайно пластичны, он может приспособиться практически к любым неблагоприятным условиям. Он и зимоустойчив (выдерживает морозы ниже -40 °С), и засухоустойчив, стабильно плодоносит в самые неудачные по погодным условиям годы и может расти на любых почвах включая известковые.

Тернослива сохранила большую часть достоинств терна, однако плоды ее крупнее, менее терпкие и более сладкие, а колючек у нее меньше.

Ценность культуры
Плоды терна используются главным образом в переработанном виде для приготовления кондитерских изделий, сиропа и кваса. В некоторых странах их добавляют в первые и вторые блюда в качестве подкислителя, а во Франции недоспелые плоды терна маринуют в масле, и получается продукт, напоминающий по вкусу маслины. В промышленности плоды используют для изготовления уксуса и ликероводочных изделий, а из косточек терна делают активированный уголь.

По химическому составу плоды терна очень близки к таковым у сливы, с той лишь разницей, что в них содержится меньше сахаров (6—8 %) и больше — дубильных веществ, а целебные свойства в целом сильнее. То же самое можно сказать и о терносливе, но содержание сахара в ее плодах достигает уже 12 %.

Интересно, что не только в плодах, но и листьях терна и терносливы обнаружено высокое содержание витамина С (его даже больше, чем в ягодах смородины). Листья, кстати, можно заваривать как чай.

В научной медицине препараты из терна используются для лечения заболеваний почек и мочевого пузыря, воспалительных процессов ротовой полости и атонии пищеварительного тракта. В народной медицине спелые плоды применяют как вяжущее средство при поносах, кору и корни — как жаропонижающее, вяжущее и противовоспалительное, а цветки — как моче- и потогонное средство и легкое слабительное.

Помимо того, что из терна и терносливы получаются хорошие живые изгороди, они еще являются хорошими медоносами.

Сорта
Наиболее известны сорта Терн десертный, Терн крупноплодный, Терн сверхобильный, Терн сладкий, Тернослив соляновскийи Тернослив узбековский, отличающиеся друг от друга прежде всего вкусом, размером и сроками созревания плодов.

Выбор места
Может расти в любой части сада, как в тени, так и на свету, но удобнее всего разместить его по периметру участка в качестве живой изгороди.

Размножение
Терн и терносливу можно размножать и семенным способом (семена обычно высеваются осенью), и вегетативно — отводками и черенками. Укореняются они легко.

Размеры посадочной ямы и схема посадки
Четких схем нет, главное, чтобы между растениями было расстояние 1—2 м.

Уход
Терн может расти и плодоносить на участке практически без ухода, достаточно подкармливать его раз в 2—3 года, поливать в случае затянувшейся засухи и удалять весной поврежденные побеги.

Вредители и болезни
Вредителями и болезнями поражается редко.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

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