Шелковица (Тутовое дерево)
Семейство Тутовые.

Род Шелковица включает в себя около 120 видов, произрастающих главным образом в субтропиках и тропиках. Из них на территории бывшего СССР распространено всего два — шелковица белая и шелковица черная, которые рассматривают обычно как единую культуру.

Долгое время в шелковице у нас видели главным образом кормовое растение для шелковичного червя и культивировали ее для нужд шелководства. В качестве плодового дерева ее выращивали только любители, хотя, например, в Турции или Индии ее всегда воспринимали как источник вкусного и полезного пищевого продукта. А если рассмотреть все возможности использования шелковицы, окажется, что она — едва ли на самая многосторонняя культура из известных.

Биологические особенности
Внешне шелковицы белая и черная довольно похожи друг на друга и различаются прежде всего окраской коры (у черной шелковицы она намного темнее, собственно, и видовые названия эти шелковицы получили именно за окраску молодых побегов, а не ягод, как некоторые думают).

Это деревья до 15 м высотой (в культуре им иногда удается придавать с помощью обрезки форму относительно невысокого порослевого куста) с крупными листьями (у шелковицы белой они более мягкие), которые на молодых побегах нередко бывают глубоко-лопастными и напоминают листву смоковницы, и плодами, точнее соплодиями, до 4 см длиной, напоминающими ягоды малины и в еще большей степени — ежевики.

Окраска ягод может быть различной — от белой и бело-кремовой до почти черной, по вкусу они сладкие или кисло-сладкие. Семена очень мелкие.
Оба вида шелковицы опыляются ветром, и в обоих есть разновидности как двудомные, так и однодомные. Созревают плоды на дереве не одновременно, их можно собирать с середины июня и до августа.

Шелковица белая, несмотря на свое южное происхождение, является деревом весьма зимостойким, она способна расти и плодоносить даже в Северо-Западном регионе России.

Шелковица черная — вид намного более южный, в наибольшем количестве она растет в Закавказье. В Украине и России распространена только в самых южных районах, а из-за большей жесткости листьев ее чаще выращивают именно как плодовое дерево, а не шелковичную культуру.

В остальном привычки обоих видов похожи — они очень-засухоустойчивы, нетребовательны к почвам (могут расти даже на засоленных грунтах), хорошо переносят задымленность и загазованность, рано вступают в плодоношение и очень легко размножаются. Кроме того, шелковица белая может расти в горах на высоте 2000 м и даже более.

Ценность культуры
Ягоды шелковицы чаще всего употребляют в пищу свежими, но можно варить из них компоты, делать варенье, джем, соки и т.п. В азиатских странах из них также готовят особый искусственный мед — бекмес, а из молотых сушеных плодов с мукой пекут лепешки.

Очень ценятся наливки из ягод шелковицы, в частности из них готовят вина, по качеству превосходящие сливовые и кизиловые. Мякоть, оставшуюся после выжимки сока, после высушивания и поджаривания можно использовать как суррогат кофе.

В ягодах шелковицы содержится в зависимости от сорта от 9 до 24 % сахаров, до 4 % органических кислот (прежде всего лимонной и яблочной), много железа, а также пектиновые и дубильные вещества. В семенах, которые люди обычно едят вместе с ягодой, содержится до 33 % жирного масла. Спелые ягоды обладают кроветворным, легким слабительным, пото- и мочегонным и отхаркивающим действием и способствуют нормализации у человека обмена веществ, а недоспелые плоды, в которых дубильных веществ намного больше, можно применять как вяжущее при поносах.

Листья шелковицы содержат очень много витаминов, их настой рекомендуется в народной медицине как средство от авитаминозов. Настой из смеси коры, листьев и плодов употребляют как противокашлевое средство и при желудочных коликах. Полезна кора и при сердечно-сосудистых заболеваниях, а в измельченном виде она также используется наружно как ранозаживляющее средство.

Интересна шелковица и как техническая культура: в прошлом из ее ветвей изготавливали различные плетеные изделия (прежде всего — корзины), а луб используется для изготовления грубых тканей, веревок и бумаги. Из коры и древесины благодаря наличию пигмента морина можно делать естественный краситель.

Сорта
У шелковицы есть и сорта, и разновидности, причем иногда трудно сказать наверняка, где разновидность, а где собственно сорт. Как плодовая наиболее распространена разновидность белой шелковицы Цареградская (Константинопольская).
Цареградская шелковица. Дерево компактное, в формирующей обрезке не нуждается. Ягоды крупные, вишнево-красные или черно-фиолетовые, очень сочные, кисло-сладкие, с более богатым вкусовым букетом, чем у обычной белой шелковицы. Более требовательна к теплу и почвам, чем другие разновидности.

Выбор места
На участке шелковицу можно разместить где угодно, но по возможности для нее желательно выделять хорошо освещенные места. Можно включить ее в состав защитной лесополосы, так как она не боится ни ветров, ни запыления и может стать заслоном для более нежных деревьев.

Размножение
Шелковица очень легко прорастает из семян, которые можно высевать как весной, так и осенью без стратификации. Культурные сорта для лучшего сохранения материнских признаков лучше размножать прививкой или отводками.

Схема посадки
Так как шелковица — дерево крупное, оптимальная площадь питания для него 5 х 6 м, однако если вы планируете ограничивать его рост, расстояние между растениями можно делать меньшим (минимум 2 х 3 м).

Обрезка, формирование кроны
Обычно в формирующей обрезке шелковица не нуждается, но ее кроне можно придать чашевидную форму или, обрезая верхушки лидера и прочих верхних побегов, искусственно сдерживать рост в высоту (правда, в холодных регионах это иногда происходит само собой — верхние побеги вымерзают, а взамен появляется корневая поросль и образовывается порослевый куст).

В южных регионах санитарную обрезку достаточно проводить раз в несколько лет. Там, где есть опасность вымерзания побегов, ее лучше проводить ежегодно.
Для старых деревьев, когда плоды начинают мельчать, проводится омолаживающая обрезка.

Поливы
Только в случае длительного отсутствия дождей. Подкормки
Подкормки желательно проводить весной начиная с 3—4-го года после посадки на постоянное место.

Прочий уход
В прочем уходе шелковица практически не нуждается.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

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