Шиповник
Семейство Розоцветные.

Шиповник входит в тот же род, что и розы, собственно говоря, он и является розой, только дикой. Таких диких роз насчитывается около 400 видов. Как дикорастущее растение шиповники распространены необычайно широко: от Севера до тропиков. В культуре наиболее распространены шиповник обыкновенный (роза-канина), шиповник коричный и роза ругоза (роза морщинистая).

Шиповник — растение не столько плодовое, сколько целебное (в Древней Руси его называли «лекарем сорока болезней») и декоративное, однако в XX веке на его полезные свойства обратили внимание и плодоводы. В результате стали появляться не только красиво цветущие садовые формы шиповника, но и плодовые сорта.

Биологические особенности
Все шиповники — колючие кустарники до 2 м высотой, отличающиеся (особенно в сравнении с декоративными видами роз) относительной неприхотливостью и зимостойкостью. Цветки у шиповников простые, розовые или белые. Плодом шиповника с ботанической точки зрения являются семянки, в быту же ими считают гипантии — сильно разросшиеся мясистые цветоложа. По форме они могут быть шаровидными, приплюснутыми или удлиненными, по цвету — от оранжевых до красных. Созревают эти ложные плоды в августе—сентябре. Их мякоть обычно содержит щетинистые волоски.

Ценность культуры
Плоды (гипантии) шиповника ценятся прежде всего как источник витаминов, с ним, как и со смородиной, сравнивают все остальные плоды, причем по содержанию не только витамина С (1179 мг/100 г, или до 20 % от общей массы — в 10 раз больше, чем в черной смородине; для обеспечения суточной потребности взрослого человека достаточно 3—4 плодов), но и Р (830 мг/100 г), а также каротина (12—18 мг/100 г). Кроме того, в них есть другие витамины (В2, К, Е), пектиновые вещества, сахара, органические кислоты (лимонная и яблочная), эфирное масло, флавоновые гликозиды, кемпферол, кверцетин, дубильные вещества и микроэлементы.

В домашних условиях плоды шиповника используют в основном для приготовления напитков, в промышленных — пищевых сиропов и концентратов, а также различных витаминизированных добавок, порошков, таблеток и экстрактов. Плоды шиповника и препараты их них рекомендуют при гипо- и авитаминозах, пониженной кислотности желудочного сока, при холециститах (как желчегонное), атеросклерозе, анемии, при различных заболеваниях, связанных с нарушениями капиллярного кровообращения (от гемофилии до носовых кровотечений), и даже для повышения устойчивости организма к различным инфекционным заболеваниям и интоксикациям

Декоративные достоинства шиповника, особенно садовых форм, также неоспоримы, а для цветоводов шиповник служит главным подвоем для садовых роз.

Сорта
Большинство сортов шиповника являются чисто декоративными и даже в прайсах семеноводческих хозяйств фигурируют в числе парковых роз. К собственно плодовым сортам относятся крупноплодные и высокоурожайные сорта Веселый Глобус, Маяк, Пальчик, Первенец, Победа, Рубин, Славутич, Тарас, Титан, Тихон, Шпиль, Яблочный и некоторые другие.

Выбор места
Для выращивания шиповника оптимальна плодородная почва с pH 5,8—6,5; высокое залегание грунтовых вод недопустимо. Размещать его надо в хорошо освещенном месте.

Для лучшего плодоношения желательно, чтобы на участке присутствовало несколько его сортов.

Способы размножения
Шиповник можно размножать делением кустов, корневыми отпрысками, отводками, корневыми черенками и семенами.
Первые три способа — без выраженных особенностей. Укореняющиеся черенки желательно прикрыть сверху мини-укрытиями (кулек, пластиковая баклажка без дна). На постоянное место их высаживают весной, летом и осенью вместе с комом земли.
Семена можно сеять как осенью (свежесобранными), так и весной после 6-месячной холодной стратификации.

Схема посадки, размер посадочной ямы
Шиповник можно сажать отдельным кустом, группой или как живую изгородь. Во всех случаях расстояние между растениями должно составлять 1,5—2 м.

Уход
Шиповник засухоустойчив, поливать его надо лишь в случае длительного отсутствия дождей. На удобрения (особенно азотные) отзывчив. Если шиповник растет на супесчаной или суглинистой почве, рыхлить приствольный круг достаточно только весной, если на тяжелых — не менее двух раз в год (лучше — по мере образования твердой корки на поверхности почвы).

Особенности сбора и хранения урожая
Плоды шиповника заготавливают, когда они уже обрели спелую окраску, но еще не стали мягкими.

Вредители и болезни
Те же, что и у розы (они очень многочисленны, но шиповник поражается ими реже и меньше страдает при поражении).

Источник: supersadovod.ru

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